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Dehydration or dehydration (total body water under normal values) ensures that the heat regulation of the sports body is disturbed. An increased heart rate, increased body temperature, fatigue and reduced performance are the consequences.
Dehydration also has a mental impact on performance due to reduced motor control, reduced reaction speed and reduced speed to make good / right decisions. In addition, gastrointestinal burden can be prevented by delayed gastric emptying. All these drawbacks can already occur with mild water shortages from 2% of the body weight (= 1.4 liters for a 70 kg athlete) and become more serious as the shortage is greater, or even dangerous. The good news is that the remedy is very simple: drinking before, during and after exercise is a must.
1. How much drink during exercise?
The need for fluid can vary a lot between athletes and depends on the sport environment. Moisture loss depends on
Construction: some people sweat more than others
Weight :, heavier athletes sweat more than lighter
Fitness: trained athletes sweat less than not trained with the same effort
Environment: people sweat more in a warm, humid environment
Intensity: the more intense the effort, the greater the moisture losses
It is therefore very difficult to give a general drinking guideline that fits all athletes. Fortunately, athletes can assess their own fluid requirements by weighing themselves before and after the sports sessions. Every kg that is lost is the equivalent of 1 liter of sweat that is lost. Add the amount of drink that was drunk and so you know the total moisture loss. For example, an athlete who weighs 1 kg lighter after exercising and who has drunk 1 liter while exercising, has a total loss of fluid of 2 liters. Once the sweat losses are known an athlete can plan to limit his fluid loss as much as possible. And although the drinking schedules are highly dependent on the circumstances, the following advice is general.
Start playing sports as soon as possible
Drink smaller quantities regularly
It is better to drink many small portions than one large volume
Most athletes can drink from 200 to 300 ml every 15 to 20 minutes
What can be tolerated depends greatly on the intensity of the effort.
2. How much can athletes drink?
Actually I should drink more water - Useful tips. During exercise, athletes can supplement about 30 to 70% of their sweat losses. Replenishing fluid applies to all athletes, even to swimmers and water polo players and also when sports in refrigerated areas, hydration should not be forgotten. There are many reasons why athletes drink too little. They are often very much focused on their training or competition, which means drinking is forgotten. Some avoid drinking because they are afraid of an uncomfortable feeling in the stomach. It is therefore important that the drinks are tasty, cool and easy to drink or they are not drunk. Once there is fluid in the mouth, nerve impulses are sent to the brain that reduces the "desire" to drink. Drinking drinks such as water and fruit juice or diluted fruit juice with a low sodium content will reduce the desire for drinking more quickly, even before the athlete has drunk enough to compensate for his sweat loss (see sodium in sports drinks).
3. What should athletes drink?
Research shows that fluid intake is higher when drinks are drunk cool (about 15 ° C), and contain a taste and sodium. Sports drinks are a good choice in this respect and not just a marketing product. A large part of the research of the drink goes to developing a taste profile that makes sense to drink during exercise. In addition, these sports drinks also contain carbohydrates in a concentration of 4 to 8%, so that the carbohydrate reserve can be supplemented during exercise.
The provision of sports drinks ensures that the moisture balance is better maintained than with water. Sports drinks are a good addition during various types of sports. The intake of the combination of carbohydrates, sodium and moisture can benefit from 1 hour of hard exercise. Water can be a good option, but water drinkers need to know that it stimulates fluid intake less than sports drinks. Water drinkers must certainly drink according to a strict plan and certainly not rely on their thirst. Soft drinks and fruit juices are a less good choice as a drink during exercise because they contain more than 10% carbohydrates and thus slow gastric emptying and do not contain sodium. Sports drinks are therefore the best choice in most situations.
4. Which are the best sports drinks?
What happens in your body if you drink soda. A good sports drink contains a minimum of 4% and a maximum of 8% carbohydrates, 400-1100 mg / sodium per liter, is not too expensive and comes in a handy package. (see also sports drinks)
5. Can one drink too much?
By drinking too much the stomach can play up. In very extreme cases, drinking too much water can lead to hyponatremia (a shortage of salt). This is rather exceptional but can occur with very long-term effort when sweating less and drinking a lot of low-sodium drinks. Those who are most at risk are women who run very long races, have a lot of time to drink a lot, drink water and sweat relatively little. This can reduce the sodium content in the blood so that it can have serious consequences. Typical symptoms are nausea, vomiting and headache but also confusion, reduced reflexes, and even fits and coma can occur. But this is rather exceptional. Drinking sports drinks with sufficient sodium can remedy such situations.
6. Sports drinks and caries
Sports drinks, but also other carbohydrate drinks, such as soft drinks and fruit juice, can cause tooth erosion. In order to minimize the impact on tooth enamel, it can help to drink with a drink and to swallow the drink as quickly as possible. Milk products and sugar-free chewing gums after drinking sports drinks can be protective and, of course, teeth cleaning always helps to strengthen the tooth enamel.
7. Summary of beverage guidelines
Start well hydrated to every sports effort. This can be done by drinking regularly throughout the day, during and between meals (1 to 1.5 liters per day).
Drink 200 to 600 ml just before the effort.
For every effort longer than 60 minutes one must maintain a strict drink schedule.
Try to limit the moisture losses to a maximum of 1% of the body weight.
Drink as soon as possible after the start of the exercise, water or sports drink.
Complete the moisture balance as soon as possible after the exercise. This can be done by drinking 150% of the fluid loss in the 4 to 6 hours after the exercise.
For very high moisture losses or when a fast recovery is necessary, a sodium supplement may be required to compensate for the sweat losses (sports drink, salty foods). Does it make sense to drink water after eating fruit.
8. The role of the trainer?
Drinking during exercise is not a natural reflex. In other words, it is a technique, a habit, which must be developed and taught. Trainers play an important role in this:
to emphasize the importance of regular hydration.
to inform athletes about hydration: what, when, how much, ...
weight control (weighing before and after exercise) to help athletes measure their individual fluid losses.
to help with planning to drink optimally during exertion and to replenish fluid after exercise.
ensure that cool customized sports drinks are available during training and competitions.
encourage athletes to use good drinking bottles and to maintain them well (correct hygiene).
to regularly measure the fluid balance and to check whether athletes continue to drink sufficiently under all circumstances.
To summarize: drinking one has to learn and from 60 minutes of intensive sports a sports drink is a useful addition, Water with minerals is better than just tap water.